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英语阅读理解真题

来源:人山人海网   时间: 2019-04-01

  阅读真题解析

  Questions 11~15

  In the information technology industry, it is widely acknowledged that how well IT departments of the future can fulfil their business goals will depend not on the regular updating of technology, which is essential for them to do, but on how well they can hold on to the people skilled at manipulating the newest technology. This is becoming more difficult. Best estimates of the current shortfall in IT staff in the UK are between 30,000 and 50,000, and growing.

  And there is no end to the problem in sight. A severe industry-wide lack of investment in training means the long-term skills base is both ageing and shrinking. Employers are chasing experienced staff in ever-decreasing circles, and, according to a recent government report, 250,000 new IT jobs will be created over the next decade.

  Most employers are confining themselves to dealing with the immediate problems. There is little evidence, for example, that they are stepping up their intake of raw recruits for in-house training, or retraining existing staff from other functions. This is the course of action recommended by the Computer Software Services Association, but research shows its members are adopting the short-term measure of bringing in more and more consultants on a contract basis.

  With IT professionals increasingly attracted to the financial rewards and flexibility of consultancy work, average staff turnover rates are estimated to be around 15%. While many companies in the financial services sector are managing to contain their losses by offering skilled IT staff "golden handcuffs"—deferred loyalty bonuses that tie them in until a certain date—other organisations, like local governments, are unable to match the competitive salaries and perks on offer in the private sector and contractor market, and are suffering turnover rates of up to 60% a year.

  But while loyalty bonuses have grabbed the headlines, there are other means of holding on to staff. Some companies are doing additional IT pay reviews in the year and paying market premiums. But such measures can create serious employee relations problems among those excluded, both within and outside IT departments. Many industry experts advise employers to link bonuses to performance wherever possible. However, employers are realising that bonuses will only succeed if they are accompanied by other incentives such as a主治癫痫病的医院ttractive career prospects, training, and challenging work that meets the individual's long-term ambitions.

  11. According to the passage, the success of IT departments will depend on ______.

  (A) their success at retraining their skilled staff

  (B) the extent to which they invest in new technology

  (C) their attempts to recruit staff with the necessary skills

  (D) the ability of employees to keep up with the latest developments

  12. The problem referred to in the second paragraph is that ______.

  (A) the government needs to create thousands of new IT posts

  (B) the pool of skilled IT people will get even smaller in the future

  (C) company budgets for IT training have been decreasing steadily

  (D) older IT professionals have no adequate training

  13. What is the possible solution to the long-term problems in the IT industry?

  (A) To offer top rates to attract the best specialist consultants.

  (B) To expand company training programs for new and old employees.

  (C) To conduct more research into the reasons for staff leaving.

  (D) To ensure that permanent staff earn the same as contract staff.

  14. In some businesses in the financial services sector, the IT staffing problem has led to _____.

  (A) additional benefits for skilled staff after a specified period of time

  (B) more employees seeking alternative employment in the public sector

  (C) the loss of customers to rival organizations

  (D) more flexible conditions of work for their staff

  15. Employers accept that IT professionals are more likely to stay in their present post if they ______.

  (A) are set more realistic performance targets

  (B) have a good working relationship with staff in other departments

  (C) are provided with opportunities for professional development

  (D) receive a remuneration package at top market rates

  本文难度稍大,需要考生快速定位,并且需要考生对原文信息作合理推断。解析如下:

  11. 本题定位于第一段。段落分析如下:

  In the information technology industry, it is widely acknowledged that how well IT departments of the future can fulfil their business goals will depend not on the regular updating of technology, which is essential for them to do, but on how well they can hold on to the people skilled a老年癫痫病能彻底治好吗t manipulating the newest technology. This is becoming more difficult. Best estimates of the current shortfall in IT staff in the UK are between 30,000 and 50,000, and growing.

  本段中除黑体字外均为铺垫或例证部分。选项中(C) their attempts to recruit staff with the necessary skills有一定迷惑性,为对原文定位的不当阐释。

  12. 本题为细节题中的段意总结题。正确答案为B。段落分析如下:

  And there is no end to the problem in sight. A severe industry-wide lack of investment in training means the long-term skills base is both ageing and shrinking. Employers are chasing experienced staff in ever-decreasing circles, and, according to a recent government report, 250,000 new IT jobs will be created over the next decade.

  黑体字部分为段落主旨。具体指明了IT行业的人才短缺问题的具体表现是:ageing(老化)和shrinking (骤减)。选项(B) the pool of skilled IT people will get even smaller in the future

  将两方面问题很好的总结出来了:首先,even smaller表示可选范围已经很小,将来随着人才年龄老化,选择雇员的范围会更小;其次,skilled IT people也说明本行业对人才要求较高。符合段意。其他三个选项则都是对原文的过度阐释。如(A) the government needs to create thousands of new IT posts。这只能算是政府部分有可能为该现象提供的一个solution, 而且文中并未提到,更重要的是,该选项与题意不符。再如(C) company budgets for IT training have been decreasing steadily 出现了budget的概念,该段并未提到。(D) older IT professionals have no adequate training则完全是错误阐释。

  13. 本题难度较大,考生失分率相当高。正确答案为B。本题有两种解法:

  l 首先可在第三段中找到Most employers are confining themselves to dealing with the immediate problems. There is little evidence, for example, that they are stepping up their intake of raw recruits for in-house training, or retraining existing staff from other functions. This is the course of action recommended by the Computer Software Services Association, but research shows its members are adopting the short-term measure of bringing in more and more consultants on a contract basis.

  从上文可以看出,黑体划线部分的raw recruits for inhouse training 就是训练新员工,retraining existing staff from other functions意为对old employees进行培训。解题时因为无法利用题干中的long-term直接定位,所以考生应该快速找到本段结尾的short-term, 并且通过转折词but 确定该处存在一处对比,那么前面的部分即是某研究部门推荐的long-term 的解决方案了。

  l 另外,该题还可以用排除法来解。这种方法比较费时,但是更加准确。如果考生实在无法确定定位,可以尝试定位其他选项,并将其排除掉。A选项主要考点为rate一词的多种含义。除了为一般考生所熟知的“比率”这个含义之外,rate还可以表示“费用或价格的量度”,可以找到定位为:

  While many companies in the financial services sector are managing to contain their losses by offering skilled IT staff "golden handcuffs"—deferred loyalty bonuses that tie them in until a certain date—other organisations, like local governments, are unable to match the competitive salaries and p长春市颠痫病医院erks on offer in the private sector and contractor market, and are suffering turnover rates of up to 60% a year.

  在本段中,黑体字所标部分继续深入说明很多企业无法留住人才的原因,其中包含了一组隐形的对比结构。请大家注意其中other一词的用法。其他机构(如政府部门等public sectors)无法做到提供有竞争力的工资,这就意味着有些private sectors 是可以做到这一点的,而事实上它们(private sectors)也确实是用这种高工资的方式来留住人才的。但是,只要对于某些部门来说执行有困难,又不能提出排除困难的方案,就不能作为正确答案了。至于C,D两个选项,排除难度比较小,C选项是对原文but research shows its members are adopting the short-term measure of bringing in more and more consultants on a contract basis.的误解,而D选项则与该句意思相反。

  14. 该题的定位仍然是第四段。答案为A。首先考生应该根据financial services sector进行定位。确定查找范围后对比选项和原文的词句,会发现loyalty bonuses即是additional benefits; until a certain date即是after a specified period of time。所以可以直接定位为A选项。其他选项均为对题干的错误定位或对原文的错误理解。

  15. 该题定位为全文最后一句转折关系句子However, employers are realising that bonuses will only succeed if they are accompanied by other incentives such as attractive career prospects, training, and challenging work that meets the individual's long-term ambitions. 答案为C。

  

  春季阅读真题解析

  Questions 16~20

  Declan Mayes, President of the Music Buyers Association, is furious at a recent announcement by the recording industry regarding people downloading MP3 music files from the Internet as actual criminals.

  A few parallels may be instructive. If someone copies an audio music cassette for their own private use, they are, strictly speaking, breaking the law. But recording companies have usually turned a blind eye to this practice because prosecuting the few people involved would be difficult, and the financial loss to the company itself is not considered significant. Now the Music Recording Association has announced that it regards individuals downloading music from the Internet as pirates, claiming that they damage the industry in just the same way. "The industry is completely overreacting; it'll be a laughing stock," says Mayes. "They're going to arrest some teenager downloading files in his bedroom—and sue him for thousands of dollars! This isn't going to frighten anyone into buying CDs".

  Mayes may have a point. There is a general consensus that CD pirates should be subjected to the full wrath of the law, but few would see an individual downloading music for his or her own pleasure in the same light. However, downloading music files illegally is not as innocuous as making private copies of audio cassettes. The scratchy, dis羊癫疯的常见症状torted cassette copy is a poor version of the original recording, whereas an MP3 file is of high quality and can be stored—on a CD, for example. It is this that makes the practice a powerful temptation for music fans, given the high cost of CDs.

  What does Mayes think about claims that music companies could be forced out of business by people downloading music illegally? That's nonsense. Music companies are always whining about high costs, but that doesn't prevent them from recording hundreds of CDs by completely unknown artists, many of whom are "packaged" by marketing departments to appeal to young consumers. The companies are simply hoping that one of these new bands or signers will be a hit, and although it can be expensive to promote new artists, the cost of manufacturing the CDs is actually very low.

  This last point would appear to be the focus of resentment against music companies: a CD is far cheaper to produce than its price in the shops would indicate, and profit margins for the music companies are huge. An adult with a reasonable income may not object to paying £15 for a CD of classical music, but a teenager buying a CD by the latest pop sensation may find that price rather steep—especially since the latest pop sensation is almost certain to be forgotten within a few months. And while the recording industry can't be held responsible for the evanescent nature of fame, given the teenage appetite for anything novel, it could lower the prices it charges—especially since technology is making CDs even cheaper to produce.

  This is what Mayes hopes will happen. If the music industry stops exploiting the music-buying public, it can survive. Everyone would rather buy a CD, with an attractive jacket and booklet, than mess around downloading files, but the price has to be reasonable. The problem isn't going to vanish if the industry carries on trying to make a quick profit. Technology has caught up with the music companies, and trying to fight it by taking people to court will only earn money for the lawyers.

  本文属于文章难度较大,问题定位明确的文章。读者需要发挥结构化阅读的方法,将文章划分为以段为单位的小块各个击破,并注意其中的指代以及结构性内容的暗示。

  16. C

  17. D

  18. D

  19. D

  20. C

  其他题目的答案

  21. A

  22. B

  23. B

  24. A

  25. C

  26. D

  27. C

  28. A

  29. C

  30. B

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